Zitto na Demokrasia

Zitto na Demokrasia

Posts Tagged ‘kilimo kwanza

Siasa Uchumi ya Umasikini Tanzania

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Zitto Kabwe, Mb

(Makala hii imetolewa kwenye utangulizi wa Kijitabu kuhusu Hoja Binafsi ya Mkonge iliyowasilishwa Bungeni katika Mkutano wa Sita wa Bunge la Kumi. Makala inajenga hoja kwamba Mkulima mdogo ndio jawabu la changamoto ya Umasikini nchini Tanzania. Zao la Mkonge ni mfano tu wa hatua mwafaka)

The Bottom 30M: Rural Tanzania

Siasa Uchumi ya Umasikini Tanzania

Sekta ya Kilimo ni sekta ambayo inazungumzwa sana kama sekta kiongozi katika Maendeleo ya Taifa letu. Kumekuwa na kauli mbiu mbalimbali za kuhamasisha Kilimo toka nchi yetu ipate uhuru. Mfano Azimio la Iringa la Siasa ni Kilimo, Kilimo cha Kufa na Kupona, Kilimo cha bega kwa bega na sasa Kilimo Kwanza! Kumekuwa na mipango mbalimbali inayoandaliwa na Serikali kuhakikisha kwamba Kilimo kinakuwa cha kisasa na hivyo kuzalisha chakula cha kutosha na pia mazao mengi ya biashara hivyo kuongeza kipato kwa mwananchi mmoja mmoja, kukuza pato la Taifa na kuongeza thamani ya mauzo yetu nchi za nje. Hata hivyo juhudi hizi kwa kiasi kikubwa hazijazaa matunda kwa kiwango cha kuridhisha.

Taarifa ya hivi karibuni iliyotolewa na Serikali inaonyesha kwamba Sekta ya Kilimo haijakua kiasi cha kutosha na kuweza kupunguza umasikini wa Watanzania! Taarifa hiyo inayoitwa Taarifa ya Umasikini na Maendeleo ya mwaka 2011 inasema kwamba mchango wa sekta ya Kilimo katika Pato la Taifa (GDP) umeporomoka kutoka asilimia 29 mwaka 2001 mpaka asilimia 24 mwaka 2010. Kuporomoka huku yawezekana kunachangiwa na kukua kwa sekta nyingine kama ile ya huduma au uzalishaji viwandani katika kipindi hicho. Hata hivyo kasi ya ukuaji wa Sekta ya Kilimo katika kipindi cha muongo huo (2001 – 2010) ilikuwa ni asilimia 4.3 chini kabisa ya kiwango kilicholengwa katika Mkakati wa kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umasikini (MKUKUTA). Kwa mujibu wa MKUKUTA ili Tanzania iweze punguza umasikini kwa wananchi wake na kuondoa nusu ya Watanzania katika dimbwi la Umasikini ilipaswa sekta ya Kilimo ikue kwa kasi ya 10% kwa miaka mitatu mfululizo. Haikuwezekana katika miaka 10 ya kutekeleza MKUKUTA, Umasikini ulishuka kwa 2 tu kutoka watu 37 kati ya watu 100 kuwa masikini wa kutupwa mpaka watu 35. Kwa nini?

Hapo ni mahala pazuri sana pa kuanzia! KWA NINI Watanzania ni masikini wakati Taifa lao Tajiri? Kitendawili hiki cha Nchi Tajiri kwa rasilimali lakini wananchi wake zaidi ya theluthi kuwa mafukara kinajibiwa namna gani?

Jibu la Kitendawili hiki ni rahisi sana! Kilimo ndio sekta inayoajiri robo tatu ya Watanzania wote. Kilimo cha mazao yanayoitwa ya chakula na yale ya Biashara ndio sekta tegemezi kwa Watanzania wengi sana. Kwamba Sekta ya Kilimo kukua kwa kasi ndogo kama inavyoonekana katika takwimu zinazotolewa na Serikali inathibitisha kwamba Umasikini wa Tanzania umejikita vijijini ambako wanategemea kilimo kwa maisha yao ya kila siku! Hivyo jibu la kitendawili lipo kwenye Kilimo. Sekta nyigine za Uchumi hata zikue namna gani hazitajibu kitendawili hiki kwa uendelevu.

Kwa mfano Sekta ya Viwanda imekuwa ikikua kwa wastani wa asilimia 8 katika kipindi cha muongo mmoja uliopita. Ukuaji huu wa sekta ya Viwanda ulikuwa chini ya malengo ya Mkukuta kwani mkukuta uliweka lengo la 15%. Lengo halikufikiwa kwasababu kwa uchumi kama wa Tanzania viwanda vitakavyoanza kukua na kuwa na maana kwa maisha ya wananchi ni viwanda vya bidhaa za kilimo. Hivyo kwa kuwa Sekta ya Kilimo haikuwa na kasi nzuri ya kukua, sekta ya viwanda nayo inaathirika. Kwa kuwa Sekta ya Kilimo ilikua kwa kasi ndogo na mahusiano kati ya sekta ya viwanda na sekta ya Kilimo ni dhaifu malengo ya kukuza ajira,kuongeza kipato na kupunguza umasikini yalishindwa kufikiwa.

Pili Sekta ya Madini ambayo ilikuwa inakua kwa kasi sana katika kipindi cha mwanzo mpaka kati cha muongo huu na baadaye kuporomoka kutoka ukuaji wa asilimia 15% mwaka 2007 mpaka asilimia 2 mwaka 2009 inachangia kidogo sana katika Pato la Taifa. Licha ya kwamba Madini huchangia takribani 48% ya mauzo yote ya Tanzania nje mchango wake katika Uchumi ni asilimia 3 tu Sababu kubwa ni kwamba kuna mahusiano dhaifu sana kati ya sekta ya Madini na sekta nyingine za uchumi na hasa Kilimo na pia Viwanda.

Tatu Sekta ya Huduma ambayo ndio sekta kubwa kuliko zote katika Uchumi wetu inachangia 44% ya Pato la Taifa nayo pia ina mahusiano dhaifu na Sekta ya Kilimo. Utalii huchangia zaidi ya nusu ya sekta yote ya huduma (17% ya uchumi- GDP) na asilimia 40% ya mauzo nje ya nchi. Hata hivyo kwa kuwa sekta ya kilimo haikui vya kutosha na kuimarisha mahusiano na sekta hii bado mafanikio haya yanashindwa kusaidia kutokomeza umasikini nchini. Ndio maana jibu la kitendawili cha kuwa na Nchi Tajiri yenye Watu Fukara lipo kwenye sekta ya Kilimo.

Kijitabu hiki kimeandikwa ili kuonyesha juhudi mojawapo ya kutaka kujibu kitendawili hiki! Juhudi hizi zimefanywa na mwandishi katika Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania kwa kuwasilisha Hoja Mahususi ya Bunge ili Bunge liazimie na kuielekeza Serikali kuchukua hatua madhubuti za kujibu kitendawili cha Utajiri na Umasikini wa Tanzania. Jibu linalotakiwa ni la kusawazisha mambo, kwamba Nchi yetu Tajiri kwa rasilimali iwe pia Tajiri wa maendeleo ya watu. Inafahamika wazi kabisa kwamba Hoja hii iliyotolewa kama hoja Binafsi Bungeni katika mkutano wa Sita wa Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ilikuwa ni hatua tu ya kuanza kutafuta majibu ya kitendawili cha Tanzania: Nchi Tajiri, Watu Fukara.

Ili kutokomeza Umasikini Tanzania ni lazima juhudi ziwekwe katika sekta ya Kilimo. Tumeona hapo juu kwamba Uchumi wa Tanzania umekua ukikua kwa takribani asilimia 7 kwa mwaka kwa miaka kumi. MKUKUTA ulitaka uchumi ukue kwa wastani wa asilimia 6-8 kwa kipindi chote hiki ili kuondoa nusu ya Watanzania masikini katika dimbwi hilo na kuwafanya wawe na ahueni katika maisha. Asilimia 7 ya kasi ya kukuza uchumi imo ndani ya kiwango kilichotakiwa lakini Watanzania walioondolewa katika dimbwi la umasikini  ni asilimia 2 tu. Kwa hiyo kasi hii ya ukuaji wa uchumi, kasi kubwa sana duniani maana uchumi wa Tanzania ni miongoni wa chumi 20 duniani zinazokua kwa kasi, ilikuwa hewani. Uchumi ulikua bila kutengeneza ajira za kutosha na hivyo kushindwa kuondoa wananchi katika dimbwi la Umasikini. Hii ni kwa sababu Sekta ya Wananchi wengi(Kilimo) haikukua inavyopaswa. Uchumi ulikuzwa na Sekta zinazofaidisha wachache kama Madini, Mawasiliano na Utalii. Suluhisho la kutomeza umasikini nchini Tanzania lipo kwenye sekta ya Kilimo na uongezaji thamani wa bidhaa za Kilimo.

Ili kuchangia katika kuleta suluhisho nilitoa hoja Bungeni ambayo ililenga kufufua kilimo kupitia zao mojawapo nchini. Lengo kubwa la Hoja la hii lilikuwa kurudisha hadhi ya Taifa letu katika zao la Mkonge. Lengo ni kufanya kilimo cha Mkonge kiongozwe na wananchi wakulima wadogo. Badala ya Wananchi kuwa vibarua na wapagazi katika mashamba yanayomilikiwa na matajiri tunataka Mkonge ulimwe na mkulima mdogo na Serikali imsaidie kama inavyosaidia wakulima wakubwa. Tulitaka pia Kilimo cha Mkonge kisambae nchi nzima na sio mikoa iliyozoeleka peke yake. Mkonge unaweza kutoa ajira zaidi ya milioni moja kwa Watanzania na kujiongezea kipato hivyo kuondoa umasikini miongoni mwao. Mkonge unaweza kuongeza mauzo ya nchi yetu nje na hivyo kuongeza mapato ya fedha za kigeni.

The Bottom 30M

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‘Why majority of Tanzanians are impoverished in a Wealthy Country and How to eradicate Poverty’

Zitto Kabwe, MP

I use the term The Bottom 30M to paraphrase Paul Collier’s Bottom Billion. This article has been motivated by the article I read from The Citizen on Saturday of 9th June, 2012. The article (Tanzania: Don’t leave your rural world behind) authored by Jacques Morisset, an economist from The World Bank explains the obvious and answers the fundamental question, ‘why is Tanzania poor’.

The Bottom 30M: Rural Tanzania

Almost 30 million Tanzanians are left out of Tanzania’s success story because the economic growth has never been inclusive. The policies of economic development adopted by Tanzania as directed and supported by the Bretton Woods institutions is the main cause of this skewed growth.

For the last 10 years, a decade, of adopting Poverty Reduction Strategies (MKUKUTA I, II and now III) Tanzania has recorded a remarkable economic growth rates but with a puzzling outcome, because the majority still live in poverty. In 2011 the Poverty and Human Development Report (PHDR), the first statement recognizes this paradox of  ‘a growing economy with increasing poverty’ and that of growth without jobs. One can claim that the bottom 30 millions Tanzanians are poor because the policy makers wanted it be.

Why are the majority of Tanzanians still poor?

Government reports as well as various research findings show that the poor live in rural Tanzania. The Household Budget survey of 2007 shows that 37% of the people living in rural areas are living below the poverty line, only 2% of the people have access to electricity and less than 40% have access to water supply. The Uwezo report ‘are our children learning‘ of 2011 shows that children from poor families do not get educated and for those in standard three in primary schools, only 3 out of 10 can answer a standard two question. This is a clear indication that the poor potentially get poorer and inequality widens.

Lifting poverty levels in the rural area could potentially improve even the welfare of urban community. Statistics show that majority of young people migrate to urban towns every day in search of greener pastures. However, it is clear from my explanations above, these young people would arrive in urban areas without sufficient job skills, without proper economic potentials and therefore this breeds another life of misery. It is not rocket science to link the high unemployment in our towns and cities and the increase in criminal activities such as drug trafficking, prostitution etc. The point I am driving home here is, it is in our best interest to improve the welfare of the rural majority in order to ensure peace and tranquility even to those who live in urban areas.

Why is poverty a rural phenomenal?

Mr. Morisset again states the obvious. Agricultural growth in Tanzania has been flat. Since Agriculture is the dominant sector in rural areas, then rural economy’s growth rate has been flat over the last decade. While we recognize record growth of Tanzanian economy, only a quarter has felt the growth leaving the rest living below the poverty line, for the last 10 years. This has happened because of poor and extractive policies on Agriculture (bureaucratic and corrupt crop boards, roadblocks, export bans on agriculture produce),  inadequate rural infrastructure ( irrigation, roads, energy and water supply) and a lack of focus ( leadership being distracted to lucrative rent generating sectors like mining and later telecom). In many sense, our leadership decided to leave the rural behind. Tanzania chose to have the Rural poor. Rural Development has never been on top of the agenda of the Government of Tanzania since 1985.   Rural Tanzania is poor because  post Mwalimu governments have made a consisous decision for it t be that way.

We in the  opposition have been tirelessly working on bringing the plight of the rural people on the agenda for some time. Our last shadow budget put forward pioneering spending plan to address growth constraints in rural areas whereby TZS 150bn would be spent annually for three consecutive years. Targeted areas for this spending plan would be; rural roads, rural energy and rural water supply (including irrigation infrastructure). We went further to propose for the formulation of the rural development policy and establishment under the Office of the Prime Minister the Rural Development Authority with mandate to monitor initiatives and removing constraints to growth of the rural economy. This Authority would really do what Mr. Morisset suggests, the two models to propel the rural economy which are contract-farming monitoring and regulating and advancement IT use to rural areas.

These policy shift and initiatives would be empathized again in the 2012/2013 shadow Budget as we did last year. The government must spend enough money in rural investments as the shadow budget as we have prioritized. Low integration of the rural economy to the national economy makes poor people poorer compounded by the fact they will continue to sell their produce pegged at rural prices and buy their consumables at urban prices hit by inflation.

The proposals we have offered are hardly efforts to invent the wheel, it is based on our already existing infrastructure for the rural majority. We have Institute of Planning (Chuo cha Mipango) which its primary objective is to train village managers. We should put incentive for our rural managers to work and live there.

We are being faced by Tanzania with two sides, one for the rich (mainly urban) and the other for the poor (rural) and this is not acceptable. Mwalimu Nyerere warned about this in the Arusha Declaration and it is happening in our time. The Bottom 30m Tanzanians living in villages must be uplifted through inclusive growth policies less of extractive nature existing presently. The so called Maisha Bora kwa kila Mtanzania is meaningless if it caters only for the top 15 million and leaves behind The Bottom 30 millions.

The government must raise more domestic revenues from mining, telecom and now increasingly Oil and Gas sectors to finance rural development, Increasing agriculture productivity and hence cut poverty. Once we achieve agricultural growth rate of 6% and above, we would start seeing rural poverty ending. This can be done in our life time. These targets are achievable, What is needed is leadership.