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Taarifa ya Kamati Teule ya Bunge kuhusu Gesi(Ripoti ya Pan African Energy)

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Na Zitto Kabwe

Mkutano wa Tano wa Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania pamoja na mambo mengine ulijadili Taarifa ya Kamati ya Bunge ya Nishati na Madini kuhusu Sekta ndogo ya Gesi nchini. Taarifa hii ilitokana na kazi iliyofanywa na Kamati ndogo iliyoundwa na Kamati ya Nishati na Madini chini ya uongozi wa Mbunge wa Bumbuli ndugu Januari Makamba. Miongoni mwa Hadidu rejea za Kamati ndogo zilikuwa ni kubainisha kama Mikataba, taratibu na Kanuni zinazotawala shughuli za gesi zinazingatia maslahi ya Taifa na hazitiliwi shaka na wadauna Kubainisha kama maamuzi yanayoendesha shughuli za gesi kama vile gharama za   ujenzi, uendeshaji na mambo mengine yanayoweza kuathiri gharama na usalama wa shughuli yanafikiwa kwa ufanisi na yanazingatia maslahi ya Taifa.

Taarifa ya Kamati iliwasilishwa Bungeni na kupitishwa na Bunge ili Serikali iweze kutekeleza maazimio zaidi ya ishirini na Sita yaliyopendekezwa. Miongoni mwa Maazimio hayo ni Azimio namba mbili ambalo linasema  ‘Kamati imejiridhisha bila shaka kwamba  kwa kipindi cha 2004 hadi 2009 Kampuni ya Pan African Energy Tanzania Ltd (PAT) imejirudishia isivyo halali gharama zinazofikia jumla ya dola za kimarekani milioni 28.1 sawa na fedha za kitanzania bilioni 46.3. Kutokana na kujirudishia fedha hizo isivyo halali kumefanya Serikali kukosa gawio lake linalofikia dola za kimarekani milioni 20.1.  Aidha, mpaka wakati Kamati inaandaa ripoti hii, Kampuni ya Pan African Energy Tanzania Ltd (PAT) imeshindwa kuwasilisha uthibitisho wa uhalali wa kujirudishia gharama nyingine zinazofikia jumla ya dola za kimarekani milioni 36. Hali hii inaonyesha mashaka makubwa katika uendeshaji wa sekta hii muhimu ya gesi’.

Azimio hili ni moja ya Azimio linalopaswa kuangaliwa kwa makini sana tunapojadili namna Tanzania inavyosimamia na kufaidika na Sekta ya Mafuta na Gesi. Taifa linafaidika kwa kiwango gani na Wawekezaji wanafaidika kwa kiwango gani ndio msingi wa Mikataba ya Mafuta na Gesi nchini. Hapajawa na mijadala mikali katika eneo hili kama ilivyo kwenye sekta ya Madini na hivyo kuachia kila kukicha Shirika la Maendeleo ya Mafuta Nchini (TPDC) likisaini Mikataba ya Kutafuta na kuchimba Mafuta na Gesi (Production Sharing Agreements – PSAs) bila Watanzania kujua haswa ni jambo gani linasainiwa. Hivi sasa kuna Mikataba hii 23 hapa nchini.

Duniani kote kuna familia mbili za mikataba ya Mafuta na Gesi. Familia ya kwanza inaitwa ‘concessionery’ ambapo Kampuni ya Mafuta ya Binafsi inapewa haki zote za mchakato mzima wa kutafuta, kuchimba, kusafirisha na kuuza Mafuta au Gesi. Umiliki wa Mafuta (rights) unakuwa ni wa Kampuni Binafsi na sio Serikali. Katika mfumo huu Kampuni hulipa mrahaba Serikalini na kodi zinazopaswa. Nchi kama Marekani, Uingereza na Canada hutumia mfumo huu.

Familia ya pili ni Mikataba ya Uzalishaji au kwa Kiingereza Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs). Katika mfumo huu Haki (right) inabakia kuwa mali ya Taifa husika na Kampuni ya Mafuta huwa ni kama mkandarasi tu wa kutafuta na kuchimba mafuta. Akipata mafuta, anaondoa gharama za kuzalisha na faida inagawiwa kati ya Kampuni hiyo na nchi husika kupitia Shirika la Mafuta. Huu ndio mfumo unaotumika hapa Tanzania na ulianzia huko Indonesia na Venezuela miaka ya sitini. Kutokanana mfumo huu ndio tunapata masuala haya ambayo Kamati ya Nishati na Madini imegundua kama nitakavyofafanua kwa ufupi hapa chini.

Mkataba wowote wa Mafuta na Gesi ni lazima uzingatie Uzalishaji na Mapato kwa ujumla, mrahaba kwa nchi, urejeshaji wa gharama za uzalishaji na kodi mbalimbali na namna faida inavyogawanywa. Kampuni ya Pan Africa Energy kujirejeshea gharama isizostahili za zaidi ya shilingi 46 bilioni ni sehemu ya mianya iliyopo katika mikataba yetu. Jumla ya shilingi 110 bilioni zimeonekana kuwa na mashaka makubwa katika mahesabu ya Kampuni hii.

Taarifa inaonyesha kwamba Kampuni hii imeweka pia Gharama zao za uzalishaji kwa miradi ya nje ya Tanzania. Kwa kuwa Kampuni ya Pan Africa Energy Tanzania Limited ni Kampuni Tanzu ya Pan Africa Energy iliyosajiliwa ‘offshore’ Mauritius ambayo nayo ni Kampuni tanzu ya Orca ambayo pia imesajiliwa visiwa vya Jersey, Tanzania isingekwepa kubambikiwa gharama ambazo si zake ili kupunguza mapato ya Serikali ya Tanzania. Imewahi kuelezwa huko nyuma kwamba hizi njia za kukwepa kodi zimeshamiri sana kutokana na Makampuni makubwa yanayofanya biashara hapa nchini kufanya ‘tax planning’ na hivyo kuhamisha mapato yao kwenda nchi zisizo na kodi kubwa kama Mauritius, Isle of Man, Jersey au hata City of London.

Mwaka 2009 mwezi Aprili katika Taarifa yake ya mwaka, Kamati ya Hesabu za Mashirika ya Umma ililiambia Bunge kwamba Mkataba kati ya TPDC na Pan Africa Energy ni moja ya mikataba mibovu kuliko yote nchini. Hii ilitokana na ukweli kwamba kwa mujibu wa PSA kati ya TPDC na Pan Africa Tanzania, mrahaba wa mafuta wa asilimia 12 unalipwa na TPDC na pia Kodi ya Mapato inakokotolewa kutoka katika mrahaba huo. Kwa maana hiyo Kampuni hii hailipi Mrahaba na pia hailipi kodi ya Makampuni (corporate tax) kwa mujibu wa Mkataba. Suala hili Kamati ya Nishati na Madini haikuliangalia (labda kwa kuwa ni la kimahesabu). Kamati ya POAC ilitaka mikataba yote ya Mafuta iangaliwe upya ili kuondoa mazonge haya yanayokosesha Taifa mapato makubwa sana.

Uwezo wa TPDC kukagua mahesabu ya Kampuni za utafutaji mafuta ni mdogo au haupo kabisa. Kama TPDC wangekuwa na uwezo huu leo Kamati ya Nishati na Madini isingekuta madudu haya katika kampuni. Pia kama Kamati ya Nishati na Madini ingeangalia mikataba ya kampuni zote za kutafuta mafuta wangekuta madudu mengi zaidi. Kuna kampuni moja yenye kisima pale Mkuranga, wamesema gharama za kuchimba visima vile ni dola za Kimarekani 240 milioni ilhali gharama halisi ni dola za kimarekani 60 milioni tu. Hivyo Gesi ikianza kuchimbwa itabidi warejeshe gharama zao kwanza. Tanzania haitapata lolote mpaka Gesi ile itakwisha.

Kuna haja ya kufanya marekebisho makubwa sana katika uendeshaji na usimamizi wa sekta ya Gesi Tanzania. Shirika la TPDC lirekebishwe kwa kuanzisha Mamlaka ya Mafuta na Gesi yenye uwezo na nguvu ya kusimamia uwekezaji katika sekta hii. Vilevile kuwepo na Shirika la Mafuta na Gesi (PetroTan –National Oil and Gas Company) ambalo litashiriki katika uwekezaji  kikamilifu na kampuni binafsi. Tusiposimamia vema sekta hii Taifa letu litaingia kwenye matatizo makubwa sana huko siku za usoni.

Maneno ya Mwana Uchumi Gwiji Joseph Stiglitz ni ya kuzingatia sana. Anasema, Mara zote nchi zinazoendelea zijue, wanapojadiliana na Kampuni kubwa za Mafuta, Kampuni hizi hufikiria jambo moja tu. Jambo hilo ni kuongeza mapato yao kwa kupunguza mapato ya mataifa husika. Tanzania ni lazima ihakikishe kwamba inapangua mbinu zote za Makampuni makubwa kwa kujenga uwezo wa Wananchi wake kupitia Shirika la Mafuta na Gesi kuweza kuwa na mikataba yenye kujali faida kwa nchi. Hili la Pan Africa Energy litufumbue macho.

 FULL REPORT YA HUJUMA SEKTA YA GESI

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Restructuring Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC)

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Mapendekezo ya Kamati ya POAC

Ilipendekezwa kuwa Shirika la maendeleo ya Petroli Tanzania (TPDC ) ligawanywe ili kupata Mashirika mawili ya Umma  moja likisimamia utoaji wa leseni na Udhibiti wa Uchimbaji (upstream regulator) (Tanzania Petroleum Authority or National Hydrocarbons Authority) na lingine kuwa Kampuni ya kibiashara ya Mafuta na Gesi (National Oil and Gas Company) ambapo kila sehemu ya Muungano itakuwa na  Kampuni yake na kuondoa malalamiko ya sasa juu ya Mafuta na Gesi. Pendekezo hili Serikali haijalitolea majibu wala utaratibu wa kulitekeleza ili kuboresha usimamizi wa sekta ya Gesi na Mafuta.

Vile vile Pendekezo hili litaweka msingi wa Sekta ya Mafuta na Gesi kusimamiwa na chombo cha muungano badala ya sasa ambapo kinasimamiwa na TPDC ambayo sio Shirika la Muungano. Pendekezo hili litekelezwe mara moja.- POAC Report 2010

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Interesting Articles from Africa Confidential :

Tanzania’s gas players

Songas consortium consists of PanAfrican Energy Limited, a subsidiary of Orca Exploration, CDC Globeleq and the state-owned Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC). Songas has operational rights over the Songo Songo-Dar es Salaam pipeline and well-established relationships with the government. Despite approaching new competition, it is keen to lock in the monopoly benefits it has enjoyed to date – hence its application for a 70% tariff increase for gas supplied to the Tanzania Electric Supply Company (Tanesco).

Maurel & Prom operates the Mnazi Bay field, hoping to supply a power plant at Mtwara and a newly announced fertiliser operation. With clear direction from the government, it could transform Mtwara and its own profits. No guidance is yet forthcoming. Both Maurel & Prom and Songas will face stiff competition if Britain’s Ophir Energy-BG Group and Petrobras develop their gas fields. The latter two have considerable acreage while the companies already in place have two discoveries. Both groups will be eyeing up the neighbouring exploration blocks on offer in the new round of bidding in April. The newcomers’ operations are likely to dwarf the existing ones. They see their main business opportunity in liquefied natural gas for export rather than for local markets.

A key figure will be David Jairo, Permanent Secretary at the Energy and Minerals Ministry, who is close to President Jakaya Kikwete having served as his Private Secretary. In the early 1990s, he was also in the Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, as it was then known, when Kikwete held the portfolio. He will be important in mediating among institutions, business and politicians. While Zitto Kabwe and January Makamba are putting energy at the top of their political agendas, more important in coming years will be whether Edward Lowassa wins 2015’s presidential election. If past performance is anything to go by, he could have an unfortunate impact on energy policy.

Gas finds offer hope of ending power-cuts
Powerful interests stood in the way of a sound energy policy emerging but everyone wants to turn on the gas
Despite obstacles from corrupt politicians, the exploitation of gas is likely to gather pace this year with new offshore discoveries. The opening on 12 April of the fourth offshore bidding round for 13 new blocks is likely to coincide with the commencement of drilling by Brazil’s Petrobras. Just one overworked pipeline runs the 200 kilometres from Songo Songo Island to Dar es Salaam. Last year’s gas discoveries by Ophir and British Gas in Tanzanian waters and this year’s by Anadarko in Mozambique, along with high fuel prices, will also help to generate interest in new export pipelines, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and much delayed gas-fired electricity generation.

However, Tanzania’s two existing gas deposits are not fully utilised. The oldest operation is the Songo Songo field, now operated by PanAfrican Energy Limited, a subsidiary of the Toronto-listed Orca Exploration Group. As part of the Songas consortium, it supplies gas to Dar es Salaam’s Ubungo power plant as well as to over 30 industrial facilities in the city.

Further south, the Mnazi Bay field near Mtwara town, now run by Maurel & Prom, is operating greatly below capacity since the collapse of plans to build a 300-megawatt power plant involving the gold mining companies Barrick and Artumas, the previous operators of Mnazi Bay. Three of the four Mnazi Bay wells are capped and the fourth is operating at just 10% of capacity. However, China is discussing financing that could revive plans for the plant at Mtwara, and Songas and Maurel & Prom hope to benefit from plans by the national electricity utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company (Tanesco), for Dar es Salaam’s Kinyerezi plant to start generation in 2013.

Tanzania also has substantial coal reserves. Investors in gas fields cannot be certain that gas-generated power plants will necessarily be built and thus provide them with a market in the long run. Two feasibility studies will be carried out for a pipeline to Mombasa, one by Orca-owned EastCoast Transmission and Marketing, one by the East African Community. Ophir and BG are pinning their hopes on the development of LNG facilities.

The challenges are considerable. The power sector has been mismanaged for over 20 years. Power-rationing, first resorted to in the early nineties, is now a fact of daily life. The government first said it wanted to increase the use of natural gas in the 1990s but plans were thwarted by the corruption of key politicians and officials tied to Western companies exporting generating equipment that was not fuelled by gas. Also central has been the quick fix of hastily arranged power-purchases. Consequently, the power sector remains hamstrung and both the Dowans and IPTL generators are idle because of contractual disputes with Tanesco.

Many of those linked to the well-known cases of corruption in the power sector are still in or near to the corridors of power. Andrew Chenge was Attorney General when he approved the IPTL contract and he still sits on the Central Committee of the governing Chama cha Mapinduzi and in Parliament (AC Vol 51 No 4). Former Prime Minister Edward Lowassa, who resigned following revelations of his central role in the Richmond-Dowans affair, now chairs the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs, Defence and Security Committee and is believed to be preparing for a bid for the presidency in 2015.

One long-serving energy sector observer has also noted the tension between the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Tanesco and the National Development Corporation. The NDC is responsible for state mining interests and is actively seeking investors in coal and wind power. NDC remains a key broker and has struck deals in China for the Mchuchuma coal mine as well as for wind in Singida Region. Yet another monolithic state institution in the power mix is unlikely to help to improve planning.

Regulation is also an issue. The Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation has roles as both the regulator of upstream operations and as the state oil company and ultimate rights holder, which creates confusion and conflicts of interest. Legislation in the sector is outmoded, dating from 1980. A Natural Gas Bill has been in the works for some years but has been delayed by turf wars between fuel importers, TPDC, Parliament and Ministry officials. TPDC is looking to hive off an independent gas distribution entity and maintain its regulatory and operational roles. Industry interests want price control taken away from the Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority. Moreover, there is pressure from Parliament to split TPDC and to have one upstream regulatory body and two state-owned oil companies, one each for Zanzibar and the mainland. The principal political backer for this is an opposition member of parliament, Zitto Kabwe, Chairman of the Parliamentary Public Investments Committee.

The lack of clarity in regulation, oversight and planning gives the advantage to companies already present and people with political connections. The Songas consortium and Orca’s PanAfrican Energy have considerable influence on pricing and infrastructure management. The senior management of these companies also has important personal and professional relationships with key players in government. Orca Deputy General Manager William Chiume is the son of the late Kanyama Chiume, an exiled Malawian politician resident in Tanzania and a confidant of former Presidents Julius Nyerere and Benjamin Mkapa. William Chiume also has President Kikwete’s ear.

Two politicians hope for political success through staking out development in the energy sector as their territory: Kabwe, of the opposition Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo, and CCM’s newly elected MP, January Makamba. Kabwe chairs the Public Investments Committee and is seeking restructuring of TPDC and the directing of public funds to the power sector.

Makamba is a son of CCM party Chairman Yussuf Makamba and a former aide to Kikwete. Articulate and energetic, he is building alliances with the private sector as well as oil and gas investors with a view to achieving quick gains – such as switching on the Dowans generators, which cannot be used because of court orders – and medium-term infrastructure development, such as investment in the Songas-operated Songo Songo-to-Dar pipeline.

Kabwe and non-governmental organisations have also taken considerable interest in mining. Yet populist measures on royalties and taxation, as well as the absence of any major new ventures in the sector since 2007, have seen this interest diminish. The recently released Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative report for Tanzania covered TPDC, Songas and Maurel & Prom among other mining companies but it is unlikely to lead to the broad popular and political interest that mining evinced since it has not yet been verified and its conclusions are not clear. Consumers can only hope that the new gas finds will lead to lower prices and more capacity – despite the obstacles.

Source: Africa Confidential