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Maoni kuhusu Muungano v Shirikisho

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Maoni kuhusu Muungano v Shirikisho

Zitto Kabwe, Mjumbe, BMK

Iwapo Tanzania ni Shirikisho (Federation) au ni Muungano (Union) ni jambo ambalo limekuwa likuzua utata kwa miaka mingi. Hivi sasa katika vikao vya Kamati za Bunge maalumu la Katiba jambo hili limezua mjadala mkubwa ambapo baadhi ya Wajumbe wanapendekeza kuwa neno Shirikisho litoke kwenye sura ya kwanza ya Rasimu ya Katiba na wengine wakipendekeza libakie au hata kuweka wazi kabisa kuwa Tanzania ni Jamhuri ya Shirikisho la Tanganyika na Zanzibar. Maoni haya yanatokana na misimamo ya wajumbe kuhusu muundo wa Muundo wa Muungano kwa maana ya idadi ya Serikali. Ni vema dhana hizi kueleweka vizuri ili watumiaji waweze kuzitumia kwa usahihi. Kwa ufupi tutazame maana ya kila dhana na mifano mbalimbali duniani. Tutatazama dhana tatu kuu – Muungano (Union), Shirikisho (Federation) na Jumuiya (Confederation/Community).

Muungano (Union)

Katika aina hii ya Nchi kuungana huundwa Taifa moja, Dola moja ndani ya Nchi moja. Katika muundo huu Serikali za Washirika wa Muungano huachia sehemu kubwa ya madaraka yao kwa Serikali ya Muungano. Mara nyingi muundo huu hupelekea kuwapo kwa Serikali moja yenye nguvu ya Muungano na kama Washirika wanabakia na Serikali zao, basi hubakia na mambo machache sana. Faida ya Muundo huu ni kwenye uimara wake na sio rahisi kuvunjika. Hasara za muundo huu ni athari ya moja ya nchi, hasa kama ni ndogo, kumezwa na Mshirika mkubwa. Hapa Afrika Nchi ya Afrika ya Kusini (Republic of South Africa) inafuata muundo huu wa Muugano ambapo Serikali ya Muungano ina nguvu na mamlaka mengi kuliko Serikali za Majimbo yanayounda Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kusini. Huko Asia mfano mzuri ni Nchi ya India ambapo japo muundo wake unatoa nguvu kubwa kwa Majimbo kujitawala, Serikali ya Muungano (Union Government) ina nguvu kubwa zinazoondoa sifa ya kuitwa Shirikisho. Sio lazima ‘Union’ kuwa na Serikali moja (Unitary State) isipokuwa mazingira ya nchi husika ndio yanaweza kuamua. Mfano mzuri hapa ni ule wa Afrika ya Kusini ambayo ni ‘unitary state’ yenye Serikali 10, tisa za Majimbo na Moja ya Muungano.

Shirikisho (Federation)

Katika muundo huu Serikali za Washirika hukasimu sehemu ndogo ya madaraka yake kwa Serikali ya Muungano. Mambo ya kidola (sovereign functions) hufanywa na Serikali ya Shirikisho na Serikali za Washirika kubakia na mambo yake yenyewe. Kwa mujibu wa Sheria za kimataifa nchi yenye mfumo wa Shirikisho kuwa ni nchi moja katika sura ya kimataifa ingawa inawezaonekana ni nchi zaidi ya moja ndani ya Shirikisho husika. Faida kubwa ya muundo huu ni kuondoa hofu ya mkubwa kummeza mdogo na ule uhuru wa kujiamulia mambo mengi. Hasara ya muundo huu ni kujengwa kwa utaifa au hisia za utaifa za Washirika ambazo hatimaye hupelekea Shirikisho kuvunjika. Hapa Afrika mfano mzuri wa Shirikisho ni nchi ya Ethiopia ambapo Majimbo yake yanao uwezo hata wa kujitoa katika Shirikisho kikatiba. Eritrea ilitumia fursa hii na kujitoa kuwa sehemu ya Ethiopia mara baada ya mapinduzi yaliyomtoa Mengistu Haile Mariam. Ujerumani pia ni Shirikisho (Federal Republic of Germany au kwa kijerumani BundesRepublik Deutschland)

Jumuiya (Confederation/Community)

Katika muundo huu kila Mshirika anakuwa na uhuru wa mambo yake yote isipokuwa tu kunakuwa na mambo ya uratibu wa pamoja. Aina hii ya Muundo ndio unapaswa kwa kinachoitwa Muungano wa Mkataba. Faida kubwa ya muundo huu ni kwamba hakuna kubanana na pale kunapotokea hofu Mshirika hujitoa. Hasara yake imo kwenye faida yake.Mfano mzuri ni Switzerland na Jumuiya ya Ulaya. Hata Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki pia inaitwa kuitwa ni Muungano wa Mkataba.

Muundo gani Tanzania?

Tanzania kuwa Shirikisho au Muungano ni mjadala ambao utaendelea kuwapo licha ya kuamua kuchagua muundo mmoja wapo. Wakati wa kuandika Katiba ya India mwaka 1947 ubishani huu ulikuwa mkubwa sana pia. Katiba ya India imegawanya mamlaka katika sehemu tatu – Mambo ya Muungano, Mambo ya Washirika na Mambo ya pamoja (concurrent). Wajumbe wa Bunge la Katiba la India wanaotaka Shirikisho walipinga muundo huo na kukataa ‘Washirika kuwa ombaomba kwa Serikali ya Muungano’. Hata hivyo ubishi huo ulimalizwa na Mwanasheria mahiri wa India bwana B M Ambedkar kwa kusema ‘tunataka Serikali imara ya Muungano na yenye nguvu iwezekanvyo’ na alifunga mjadala kwa kusema ‘Muungano wa Washirika unatakiwa zaidi kuliko Shirikisho la Washirika’. Hivi ndivyo ilivyo India ambapo pamoja kwamba ni Shirikisho lakini ni ‘Unitary’. Vile vile Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kusini ina muundo sawa sawa na nchi ya Jamhuri ya Shirikisho la Ujerumani lakini wakati Ujerumani ni Shirikisho, Afrika Kusini ni Muungano (Unitary).

Watanzania hatupaswi kuiga isipokuwa kujifunza kwa nchi nyingine. Hivyo muundo gani unafaa ni uamuzi wetu wenyewe. Hata hivyo uamuzi huo ni lazima ujibu vigezo fulani fulani. Vigezo vikubwa ni viwili; Je, Muundo tunaoutaka utajibu kero (malalamiko) za Muungano wa sasa? Je, Muundo tunaoutaka utajibu hofu za Muungano kuvunjika. Muundo utakaojibu hofu hizo ndio utakaotufaa. Tanzania inaweza kuwa na Muundo wa Muungano wenye Serikali tatu ama Muundo wa Shirikisho wenye Serikali mbili, ama kinyume chake. Idadi ya Serikali haina uhusiano wowote na ama tunaitwa Shirikisho au Muungano. Mifano miwili hapo juu ituongoze, India ni Muungano unaitwa Shirikisho na Afrika Kusini ni Shirikisho linaloitwa Muungano. Tanzania inaweza kuwa vyovyote vile ili mradi tu kunakuwa na Mamlaka ya kutosha katika masuala ya Muungano ili kuiweka Nchi pamoja na kuwa na Taifa imara mbele ya mataifa ya ulimwengu.

Muungano wa Serikali 3 na sio Shirikisho la Serikali 3 ndio mapendekezo yangu. Muungano (Union) wa Washirika ni bora, imara na endelevu zaidi kwa mazingira ya Afrika kuliko Shirikisho (Federation) la Washirika.

Mapendekezo yangu mahususi yaliyowasilishwa kwenye kamati namba 12 ni kama ilivyo hapa chini.

SURA YA KWANZA

SEHEMU YA KWANZA

1(1)    Irekebishwe na kuandikwa upya na isomeke

Tanzania ni Nchi Moja na ni Jamhuri ya Muungano yenye mamlaka kamili ambayo imetokana na Muungano wa Nchi za Jamhuri ya Tanganyika na Jamhuri ya Watu wa Zanzibar ambazo kabla ya Hati ya Makubaliano ya Muungano ya Mwaka 1964, zilikuwa nchi huru.

1(2) neno Shirikisho lifutwe na kuongeza maneno ….Nchi ya…. baada ya neno ‘ni’ na kabla ya neno ‘kidemokrasia’

Ongeza ibara ya mpya ya 3 itakayosomeka

3(1)  Shughuli zote za Mamlaka ya Nchi katika Jamhuri ya Muungano zitatekelezwa na kudhibitiwa na vyombo vitatu vyenye mamlaka ya Utendaji, vyombo vitatu vyenye mamlaka ya kutekeleza utoaji haki, na pia vyombo vitatu vyenye madaraka ya kutunga sheria na kusimamia utekelezaji wa shughuli za umma

3(2) Vyombo vyenye Mamlaka ya Utendaji vitakuwa ni Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano, Serikali ya Zanzibar na Serikali ya Tanganyika; vyombo vyenye Mamlaka ya kutekeleza utoaji haki vitakuwa ni mahakama  ya Juu ya Jamhuri ya Muungano, Mahakama ya Tanganyika na Mahakama ya Zanzibar na vyombo vyenye Mamlaka ya ya kutunga sheria na kusimamia utekelezaji wa shughuli za umma vitakuwa ni Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano, Baraza la Wawakilishi la Tanganyika na Baraza la Wawakilishi la Zanzibar.

3(3) Kwa ajili ya utekelezaji bora wa shughuli za umma katika Jamhuri ya Muungano, na kwa ajili ya mgawanyo wa madaraka juu ya shughuli hizo baina ya vyombo vilivyotajwa katika ibara hii, kutakuwa na mambo ya Muungano kama yalivyoorodheshwa katika Nyongeza ya Kwanza ya Katiba hii, kutakuwa na mambo ya uratibu wa pamoja na kutakuwa na mambo yasiyo ya Muungano ambayo ni mambo mengine yote yasiyo mambo ya Muungano na yasiyo ya uratibu wa pamoja.

3(4) Kila chombo kilichotajwa katika ibara hii kitaundwa na kutekeleza majukumu yake na Katiba za Serikali za Washirika na kwa kufuata masharti ya katiba hii.

3(5) Kwa ajili ya utekelezaji bora wa shughuli za Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano au Serikali ya Tanganyika au Serikali ya Zanzibar Bunge laweza kuigawa Jamhuri ya Muungano katika Mikoa kwa mujibu wa Sheria iliyotungwa na Bunge Isipokuwa kwamba Bunge litapata kwanza Azimio la Baraza la Wawakilishi la Tanganyika kwa mikoa ya Tanganyika au Baraza la Wawakilishi Zanzibar kwa mikoa ya Zanzibar.

SABABU ZA MAREKEBISHO YANAYOPENDEKEZWA.

Rasimu ya Katiba imetangaza tu kuwa ‘Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania

(JMT) ni Nchi’ na kuacha ‘ambiguity’ ya kwamba Tanzania ni nchi ngapi.

Katiba ya sasa imetamka bayana kuwa ‘Tanzania ni Nchi Moja’. Rasimu pia imetamka kwamba JMT inatokana na ‘muungano wa nchi mbili’. Hivyo basi ni vema kuweka wazi kabisa kuwa Nchi hizi mbili zimeunda nchi moja. Hii itaepusha migongano ya siku za usoni kuhusu tafsiri ya Katiba na Mamlaka za Nchi. Ifahamike wazi kuwa idadi ya Serikali haina uhusiano na uundaji wa nchi moja.

Rasimu imetangaza kuwa Tanzania ni Shirikisho ingawa bado imetamka ‘Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania (United Republic of Tanzania). Dhana za ‘Union’ na ‘Federation’ ni dhana mbili tofauti katika miungano.

Idadi ya Serikali haina mahusiano ya moja kwa moja na aina ya Muungano kama ni ‘Union’ au ni ‘Shirikisho’. Kwa mazingira ya Nchi za Kiafrika ni salama zaidi kuwa na ‘Union’ kuliko Shirikisho. Kwa kutumia maneno ya Mwanasheria gwiji na mwandishi wa Katiba ya India Bwana B M Ambedkar, “Muungano wa Washirika unatakiwa zaidi kuliko Shirikisho la Washirika”. Ni vema kuwa na Muungano wenye Serikali ya Muungano yenye nguvu iwezekanavyo ili kuhimili vishindo na changamoto dhidi ya Nchi yetu na umoja wetu bila kuathiri uhuru wa Serikali za Washirika kuendesha mambo yao wenyewe bila bugudha.

Rasimu imeweka sura ya Kwanza bila kutaja vyombo vya Jamhuri ya Muungano. Ni vema ili kuondoa ‘ambiguity’ vyombo vya Jamhuri ya Muungano kutajwa kinagaubaga katika Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano katika sura ya ‘uundwaji wa nchi’. Mapendekezo ya ibara mpya za sehemu ya kwanza ya sura ya kwanza yanazingatia tahadhari hiyo. Katika kutaja vyombo mapendekezo haya yanaonyesha dhahiri kuwa ugawaji wa Nchi katika Mikoa inakuwa ni mamlaka ya Bunge. Serikali za Washirika zaweza kuwa na mamlaka ya Serikali za Mitaa. Mikoa inapaswa kuwa mamlaka ya Bunge la Muungano kwa sababu yaweza pia kutumika katika kupata Wabunge wa Muungano lakini pia itasaidia kuondoa tabia ya kugawa mikoa hovyohovyo.  Kimsingi ilipaswa Mikoa yote ya Nchi itajwe ndani ya Katiba kuongezeka au kupunguka kwake kutokane na maamuzi maalumu ya Bunge hata ikibidi iwe kwa theluthi mbili.

SURA YA SITA

Ibara ya 60(1) maneno shirikisho yafutwe na kubaki uwepo wa Serikali 3.

60(3) isomeke

Muundo, madaraka na mambo mengine ya kiutendaji yahusuyo Serikali ya Tanganyika, na Serikali ya Zanzibar yataanishwa katika Katiba za Washirika na kwa kuzingatia masharti ya Katiba hii.

Ibara ya 63 iitwe 63(1)

Iongezwe 63(2)

Kwa ajili ya uratibu bora wa shughuli za Mamlaka za Nchi na kwa ajili ya kuhakikisha ufanisi na weledi katika uendeshaji bora wa Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na mgawanyo wa madaraka, Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano itakuwa na mamlaka ya uratibu juu ya mambo ya uratibu kama yalivyoorodheshwa katka nyongeza ya pili ya Katiba hii.

64(1) maneno nchi washirika yaondoke na kubakia neno Washirika au Washirika wa Muungano.

64(5) isomeke

Serikali za Washirika zitakuwa na hadhi na haki sawa ndani ya Jamhuri ya Muungano na zitatekeleza majukumu yao kwa mambo yote yasiyo ya Muungano katika mamlaka za Serikali za Washirika kwa mujibu wa masharti yatakayowekwa na Katiba za Serikali za Washirika kwa kuzingatia masharti ya Katiba hii.

65 maeneo yote yenye maneno Nchi Washirika yafutwe na kuandikwa Washirika wa Muungano

67 ifutwe yote

69 maneno Nchi yafutwe ….katiba za Washirika…….

69 (2) maneno Viongozi wakuu yafutwe na kuandikwa ‘ Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania na Wakuu wa Serikali za Washirika watakuwa ni Viongozi Wakuu wa Nchi’

69(3) isomeke

Viongozi wanaohusika na masharti ya ibara hii ni

(a) Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano

(b) Mkuu wa Serikali ya Tanganyika ambaye pia atakuwa Makamu wa Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano

(c) Mkuu wa Serikali ya Zanzibar ambaye pia atakuwa  Makamu wa Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano.

Ongeza ibara ya 70

(1) Mkuu wa Nchi ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambaye ataitwa Rais atapatikana kwa kuchaguliwa kwa kura na wananchi wote wa Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa Mujibu wa masharti ya Katiba hii. Rais atakuwa pia Mkuu wa Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano.

(2) Wakuu wa Serikali za Washirika watapatikana kutoka kwenye Mabaraza ya Wawakilishi ya Washirika kutoka Chama cha siasa chenye wawakilishi wengi kwa mujibu wa masharti yatakayowekwa na Katiba za Washirika na kwa kuzingatia masharti ya Katiba hii.

SABABU ZA MAPENDEKEZO

Lengo ni kuhakikisha kuwa Jamhuri ya Muungano inabakia ni nchi moja yenye serikali 3 zenye mamlaka na madaraka yake yaliyofafanuliwa na katiba. Kwa kuwa tunaamua kuwa na Nchi moja basi Serikali zinazoundwa zitakuwa ni Serikali Washirika na sio nchi Washirika tena kama rasimu inavyoita. Kuweka wazi kuwa ni kiongozi mmoja tu wa Serikali ndio atachaguiwa na wananchi wote wa Jamhuri ya Muungano naye ni Rais – Mkuu wa Nchi na Amiri Jeshi Mkuu wa majeshi ya Ulinzi na usalama.

Majina ya Wakuu wa Serikali za Washrika yatatolewa na kwa mujibu wa Katiba zao na hivyo hakuna sababu kwa Katiba ya Muungano kuunda majina isipokuwa tu Wakuu wa Serikali za Washirika watakuwa ni Makamu wa Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa kuzingatia kuwa iwapo Rais wa Muungano anatoka upande mmoja wa Muungano, makamu wa kwanza atatoka upande wa pili wa Muungano. Makamu wa Rais wanaweza kukaimu Urais kwa masharti maalumu yatakayowekwa na Katiba.

Mapato na mgawanyo wa Mapato ya Muungano katika Serikali Tatu

Dola inapasa kuwa na rasilimali za kutosha na ziada inaweza kugawa kwa Washirika na Mikoa katika wajibu wa kuhakikisha maendeleo yanawiana. Dola pia inaweza kuwa na miradi ya Muungano. Kuna haja ya kuangalia kwa umakini mkubwa suala hili la mapato ya Serikali ya muungano kama kweli kuna nia ya dhati ya kuendelea kuwa na Muungano. Mapendekezo yangu ni kama ifuatavyo;

Mapato ya Muungano

1. Ushuru wa Forodha

2. Mrahaba wa uvunaji wa Rasilimali ambapo 25% itabaki kwenye mkoa wenye rasilimali na 75% itatumika na Serikali ya Muungano kugawa kwenye mikoa kwa mujibu wa ‘formulae’ itakayokubaliwa kwa kuzingatia idadi ya watu, kiwango cha umasikini na ukubwa wa kijiografia.

3. Ushuru wa Bidhaa na huduma ambapo 60% itagawiwa kwa nchi Washirika kwa ajili ya miradi maalumu ya muungano.

4. Mapato kutoka kwenye kampuni za kibiashara za Serikali ya Muungano na gawio la Benki Kuu ya Tanzania.

Mapato ya Serikali za Washirika

1. Kodi ya Mapato ya watu binafsi na Makampuni 2. Kodi ya Ongezeko la Thamani au kodi kama hiyo 3. Tozo mbalimbali zitakazotungwa kwa mujibu wa sheria 4. Mapato yasiyo ya kikodi kutoka idara na Wizara za Serikali.

Mapato ya Mikoa

1. 25% ya Mrahaba kutokana na uvunaji wa Rasilimali/maliasili inayopatikana katika mkoa husika 2. 10% ya makusanyo ya kodi ya mapato ya watu binafsi na makampuni kutoka katika mkoa husika 3. Mgawo kutoka Serikali ya Muungano 4. Mgawo kutoka Serikali ya Washirika 5. Tozo mbalimbali zitakazoanzishwa kwa mujibu wa sheria ndogo ndogo zitakazopitishwa na Mabaraza ya Mikoa

Dodoma,

Aprili 2014

 

PAC imeanza uchunguzi kuhusu ukwepaji kodi unaofanywa na makampuni ya Kimataifa

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PAC imeanza uchunguzi kuhusu ukwepaji kodi unaofanywa na makampuni ya kimataifa.

Leo tarehe 30 Machi 2014, kamati ya BUNGE ya PAC imeanza rasmi uchunguzi kuhusu ukubwa wa tatizo la ukwepaji kodi na utoroshwaji wa fedha unaofanywa na makampuni ya kimataifa ( multinational corporations). Uchunguzi huu unatokana azimio la umoja wa kamati za PAC za nchi za SADCOPAC lilioamuliwa Arusha, Tanzania mwezi Septemba mwaka 2013 ( Azimio lilisomeka – PACs should initiate investigations on the extent of tax avoidance/evasion and illicit money transfer in their jurisdiction).

Leo PAC imekutana na Mamlaka ya Mapato Tanzania (TRA), Benki Kuu ya Tanzania (BOT), Kitengo cha Fedha Haramu ( FIU) na Mdhibiti na Mkaguzi Mkuu wa Hesabu za Serikali (CAG) kwa ajili ya majadiliano ya awali kuhusu uchunguzi huo.

Kamati imeelezwa kuwa tatizo la ukwepaji kodi ni kubwa sana na linagusa sekta zote. TRA imeieleza kamati mifano mbalimbali kwa kila sekta namna gani Taifa linapoteza kodi. Njia zinazotumika ni pamoja na udanganyifu katika mikopo, udanganyifu katika bei za mauzo ya bidhaa zinazouzwa nje na mikataba ya biashara miongoni mwa makampuni yanayohusiana. Uchunguzi uliofanywa na TRA kwa kampuni mojawapo wa uchimbaji madini unaonyesha kuwa kampuni hiyo iliyotangaza hasara mwaka 2011 iligundulika kuwa kumbe ilipata faida ya dola za kimarekani 327 milioni.

Sekta ya Utalii na mahoteli inaonyesha kugubikwa kiasi kikubwa na ukwepaji kodi kwa kampuni katika sekta hiyo kutumia mikataba na makampuni yanayohusiana yaliyokwenye Tax Havens ambayo inahamisha mapato mengi kwenda offshore (profit shifting and base erosion).
Kamati imeelezwa na BoT kuwa hivi sasa kuna uchunguzi maalumu unaoendelea kuhusu ‘illicit financial transfer’ kutoka Tanzania.

Pia ameeleza kwamba hatua zimeanza kuchukuliwa kufunga akaunti za makampuni ya madini yaliyopo offshore kwani sababu za makampuni hayo kuwa akaunti nje hazina msingi tena. Hata hivyo changamoto kubwa ni mikataba waliyoingia na Serikali ambayo inawaruhusu kufungua akaunti offshore na kuweka mapato yao yote ya mauzo ya madini huko.

Utoroshaji wa fedha kutoka Tanzania ni changamoto kubwa sana ya maendeleo ya Tanzania katika kupambana na umasikini. Utoroshwaji umekuwa ukikua mwaka hadi mwaka. Taarifa ya benki ya maendeleo Afrika inaonyesha kuwa mwaka 2010 peke yake Tanzania zilitoroshwa jumla ya dola za kimarekani bilioni 1.3 ambazo zilikuwa sawa na asilimia 5 ya Pato la Taifa (GDP) na zaidi ya asilimia 20 ya mapato ya ndani ya TRA.

Kamati ya PAC itaendesha uchunguzi na kuandaa taarifa itakayowasilishwa bungeni kwa hatua zaidi. Hii itakuwa ni mara ya kwanza kwa BUNGE la Tanzania kuendesha uchunguzi wa aina hii. Pia Tanzania imekuwa nchi ya kwanza katika eneo la SADC kutekeleza azimio hili. Nchini Uingereza kamati ya PAC ya BUNGE la uingereza iliendesha uchunguzi kama huu na makampuni makubwa kama google, Amazon na Starbucks waligunduliwa kukwepa kodi nchini humo. Kwa nchi za Afrika sekta yenye kutorosha fedha na kukwepa kodi kwa wingi ni sekta ya madini, mafuta na gesi. Mwaka 2013 mwezi Desemba kamati ya PAC Tanzania ilikutana na PAC – UK ili kupata uzoefu wa namna ya kuendesha uchunguzi wa aina hii.

Zitto Kabwe, MB
Mwenyekiti, PAC
Dodoma
30-03-2014

RELATED STORY: Africa’s $200 billion kept in foreign banks  (‘Rich beggar’ paradox that is Africa’s forex reserves)

Courtesy: THE EAST AFRICAN

Tuboreshe Rasimu iliyopo-Zitto Kabwe

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Tuboreshe Rasimu iliyopo

Na Zitto Kabwe, MB

Wiki ya Machi 18 – 22, 2014 ilianza kwa siku ya Jumanne Mwenyekiti wa iliyokuwa Tume ya Mabadiliko ya Katiba Jaji Joseph Sinde Warioba aliwaslisha rasmi Rasimu ya Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania katika Bunge Maalumu la Katiba. Wiki hiyo imeishia kwa siku ya Ijumaa Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano ndugu Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete kutoa hotuba kwa Bunge Maalumu. Hotuba zote zimepokelewa kwa hisia tofauti kulingana na msimamo wa kila mtu kuhusu hoja inayoonekana ni kubwa
kuliko zote katika mchakato wa kuandika Katiba Mpya – Muundo wa Muungano. Wale wanashabikia muundo wa Serikali Tatu, walifurahishwa mno na hotuba ya Jaji Warioba. Wale wanaoshabikia muundo wa Serikali mbili walifurahishwa mno na hotuba ya Rais Kikwete. Sikufurahishwa na hotuba zote mbili.

Nitaeleza.

Moja, hotuba zote mbili zilichukua muda mrefu zaidi kuelezea sura moja tu ya Rasimu ya Katiba nayo ni sura ya Sita inayohusu muundo wa Jamhuri ya Muungano kana kwamba Katiba hii inahusu suala hilo tu. Ni dhahiri suala hili ni kubwa na muhimu kwani linahusu uhai wa Dola yenyewe na siwezi kubeza. Hata hivyo masuala kama Haki za Raia ni muhimu zaidi kwani hata uwe na muundo wa namna gani wa muungano au hata muungano wenyewe kuvunjika, bila ya kuwa na haki za msingi za raia kwenye katiba katiba hizo zitakataliwa tu na wananchi. Huu mtindo unaozuka wa kudhani muundo wa muungano ndio mwarobaini wa matatizo ya ufisadi, matumizi mabaya ya madaraka, ubadhirifu, umasikini, elimu ya hovyo, afya dhaifu, utatufikisha pabaya na hata kurudi tena kuandika katiba kudai haki hizo. Jaji Warioba na Rais Kikwete wameshindwa kuruka kiunzi cha kwamba Katiba ni zaidi ya Muungano.

Pili, wote wawili Rais Kikwete na Jaji Warioba wamejenga hoja zao kuhusu miundo ya Muungano wanayopendekeza au kuunga mkono kutokana na misingi ama ya ‘malalamiko’ au ‘hofu’. Jaji Warioba aliorodhesha malalamiko 11 ya upande wa Zanzibar dhidi ya Muungano na malalamiko 10 ya upande wa bara. Kimsingi malalamiko yote ya upande wa bara yanazaliwa na vitendo vya upande wa Zanzibar isipokuwa lalamiko namba vii linalohusu kupotea kwa utambulisho wa Tanganyika katika muundo wa Muungano.

Jaji Warioba anajenga msingi wa pendekezo la Tume yake kutokana na kujibu malalamiko au maarufu kero za Muungano na anasema

“….muundo wa Serikali mbili hauwezi kubaki kwa hali ya sasa. Muungano wa Serikali mbili waliotuchia waasisi siyo uliopo sasa…… waasisi walituachia Muungano wa Nchi Moja yenye Serikali mbili, na siyo Nchi Mbili zenye Serikali Mbili“. Nukuu hii niliipenda kuliko zote katika Hotuba ya Mzee wangu Warioba.

Rais Kikwete alijenga msingi wa maoni yake kwenye hofu za kuwa na Serikali tatu. Hofu hizo ni pamoja na gharama za kuendesha Muungano, kuzuka kwa hisia za Utaifa wa Utanganyika na Uzanzibari, uwezekano wa Muungano kuvunjika kwa kushindwa kuhudumia majeshi na hata Jeshi kuchukua Nchi ikipidi na kutupilia mbali katiba na Serikali ya Muungano kutokuwa na Rasilimali zake. Rais alisema ‘Serikali ya Muungano ni egemezi na tegemezi’ nukuu ambayo niliipenda kuliko zote katika Hotuba ya Mzee wangu Jakaya Kikwete.

Rais Kikwete hakuniridhisha kabisa namna ya kumaliza kero za Muungano kwa muundo uliopo sasa kwani muundo huo umeshindwa kuzimaliza kwa takribani miaka 50 tangu Muungano uundwe. Haiwezekani muundo uliozalisha kero lukuki ndio utarajiwe kuzimaliza kero hizo. Kwa vyovyote vile ni lazima kuwa na muundo mpya lakini kiukweli ni lazima muundo huo mpya ujibu hofu alizoeleza ndugu Rais maana ni hofu za kweli.

Jaji Warioba hakuniridhisha na namna suala la Uraia litakavyotatuliwa kwani kutoa jibu la kubakia na ‘kukubali’ Nchi mbili halafu uraia mmoja kunaleta mashaka makubwa. Kama tunataka kuwa na Uraia mmoja ni lazima tuwe Nchi moja, hatuwezi kuwa na Nchi mbili uraia mmoja.

Vilevile vyanzo vya mapato ya Muungano ni vidogo mno kuendesha dola. Hivyo basi rasimu iliyopo mbele ya Bunge Maalumu ina mapungufu makubwa japo imetoa mapendekezo yatakayomaliza malalamiko ya Muungano.

Sasa kazi ya Bunge ni moja tu nayo ni kuboresha rasimu iliyopo mbeleyake ili kumaliza kero za muungano zilizopo na kujibu hoja za hofu za muundo mpya. Hakuna sababu ya kubishana kwenye takwimu za Tume, tume imefanya wajibu wake na sasa Bunge Maalumu nalo litimize wajibu wake.

Iwapo kama kweli tunataka kusikia Watanzania wanataka nini kwenye muundo wa Muungano, tusimamishe Bunge na twende tukawaulize kwa kura (referendum). Vingivenyo tuboreshe rasimu iliyopo na iliyotokana na maoni ya wananchi wote kwa kujibu hizo hofu muhimu alizoainisha ndugu Rais na hayo malalamiko muhimu yaliyoainishwa na Tume. Sio kazi ya Bunge Maalumu kutafuta ubora wa hotuba zilizotolewa mbele yetu bali kuona mazuri ndani ya hotuba hizo yasaidie kazi yetu Tuzingatie kuwa tusijenge Nchi kwa kujibu malalamiko na hofu tu maana hofu na malalamiko hayaishi katika dunia inayobadilika kwa kasi sana.

Tuamue tunataka kuwa Jamhuri ya Muungano ya namna gani. Nini sababu ya Jamhuri yetu na aina gani ya Tanzania tunataka kujenga. Tuanze kwa kutafsiri sababu ya Tanzania kuwepo na Tanzania gani tunataka kujenga kisha tutunge Katiba itakayowezesha kutufikisha huko tutakapo kufika.

 

 

PRESS CONFERENCE VIDEOS: SITOKI CHADEMA-ZITTO

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TAARIFA YA ZITTO ZUBERI KABWE (MB) KUHUSU KUVULIWA NAFASI ZA UONGOZI NDANI YA CHAMA CHANGU CHA CHADEMA

URL: http://www.youtube.com/zittokabwe

SITOKI CHADEMA


NITASIMAMA DAIMA MBELE YA DEMOKRASIA


NINAPOZUSHIWA NAUMIA MIMI NI BINADAMU


USAMBAZAJI WA RIPOTI YA SIRI KUHUSU ZITTO KABWE  


KUSHAWISHI WAGOMBEA WA CHADEMA KUJITOA KWENYE UCHAGUZI 2010

POSHO ZA WABUNGE


TAMKO LA PAC HESABU ZA VYAMA HAZIJAKAGULIWA CAG


TUHUMA ZINAZOMKABILI ZITTO ZUBERI KABWE KUTOMKAMPENIA RAIS WA CHADEMA KATIKA UCHAGUZI 2010


UJENZI WA CHADEMA KIGOMA


PRESS CONFERENCE – TUHUMA

 

 

Written by zittokabwe

November 24, 2013 at 9:34 PM

Foreign aid is not the only African story worth hearing

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Overcoming ‘The Danger of a Single Story’ to Africa’s development discourse

Zitto Kabwe

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2013/nov/01/foreign-aid-tax-africa

Foreign aid is not the only African story worth hearing

Chimamanda Adichie, the award-winning Nigerian author, has spoken of the danger of a single story. She writes from a literary perspective, but her warning also applies to talk about development in Africa.

For more than five decades, the development debate has been dominated by a single story: foreign aid. But there is another story – that of illicit financial flows.

However, this story is not rosy, nor is it popular. Information about illicit flows are kept secret and efforts to address the situation are often discouraged. And little wonder – because data shows that illicit money flowing out of the continent is double what it receives in foreign aid.

According to estimates by Global Financial Integrity, a research and advocacy organisation working to curtail illicit financial flows out of developing countries, up to $1.4tn (£870bn) was transferred from Africa over the three decades to 2009. Meanwhile, illicit flows exceeded the continent’s foreign debts. This makes Africa a net creditor to the world.

The curious case of Tanzania further underlines this story. In 2001-11, the east African country’s economy grew an average of 7% a year yet poverty declined by only 2%. The high growth reflects the country’s strengthening mining and service industries, but these have not benefited the poor.

Tax payments by multinationals have been minimal, and existing local sources of jobs, such as small-scale mining, have been suppressed for the benefit of big miners.

While Tanzania exported minerals worth $11.3bn between 2001-11, government revenues were US$440m, just below 4% of the total value of the exports. As a visiting IMF delegate remarked in 2011: “The growing mining sector has little net fiscal impact due to significant losses contributed by tax incentives abuse and structure.”

Of course, there are other challenges that hamper our development, such as corruption and the dominance of the informal economy, which accounts for an estimated 53% of GDP. However, tax evasion and avoidance are key contributors to Tanzania’s development setbacks.

The country loses 5% of its GDP to tax avoidance, 4% to tax exemptions given to multinationals, and almost 3% to evasion of customs duties. Several well-to-do Tanzanians evade tax by shifting their undeclared assets abroad. These assets are sometimes legally obtained, but usually they are acquired corruptly.

In 2012, the Swiss National Bank issued a report that showed Tanzanians held $196m in its institutions. Other unpublished reports indicate this figure could be even higher.

Last week, during an official fact-finding trip, a Swiss banker told me that while Tanzania had been complaining about Switzerland, much more Tanzanian-owned money was being held in London, Jersey, as well as the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands. These are British offshore territories, however secrecy denies us an opportunity to discover the sum being held in these jurisdictions.

Much more money is lost from Africa through tax avoidance by multinationals investing in the continent. They use legal channels to transfer their profits to low-tax areas such as Switzerland, the City of London and the Cayman Islands.

The developed world is also losing resources, through the same mechanisms that are damaging Africa. Consequently, the US and EU have pressured tax havens to share information about the fortunes hidden on their shores, and, as a result, several of the most clandestine jurisdictions, including Switzerland, are preparing to share such information.

Yet my visit to Switzerland revealed a serious problem: the increased co-operation is between, and to the benefit of, developed countries. The rest risk being left in the dark, with no access to information about the financial resources taken from our countries.

We need to change this, and this is how we can start: the developed and developing world must agree to automatic and unconditional exchange of information about tax. Global rules to ensure multinationals report on a country-by-country basis are also vital, to insist they pay the correct amount of tax in each country.

At the same time, African governments must renounce double taxation treaties, which make them surrender tax revenues to developed countries. Instead, they should insist on a global convention on such matters.

Also important is for the UK and other countries in the Open Government Partnership to create public registries of the beneficial owners of companies, trusts and foundations. We cannot talk of open government without opening offshore jurisdictions, and we cannot insist on opening up government data without also opening up the tax havens that impoverish Africa.

Africa must not continue to be a beggar of its own illicitly removed resources, which are returned as aid but with strings attached. Aid to Africa is one story; illicit flows are another, less talked about reason for the continent’s poverty.

Zitto Kabwe MP is chair of the parliamentary public accounts committee in Tanzania, as well as an economist specialising in anti-corruption and campaigner on tax justice

 

CAG yet to receive parties audit reports

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CAG yet to receive parties audit reports

Chairman of the Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee (PAC),Mr Zitto Kabwe PHOTO|FILE

In Summary

NCCR-Mageuzi chairman James Mbatia refuted reports that the party has not submitted its audit reports for four consecutive years.

Dar es Salaam. The office of the Controller and Auditor General (CAG) said yesterday it was yet to receive audit reports from any of the nine political parties getting subvention.

The remark is in response to a controversy triggered by remarks of the chairman of the Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee (PAC), Mr Zitto Kabwe. His committee has since summoned six of the parties to explain why their accounts were yet to be audited.

The response by the deputy CAG, Mr Francis Mwakapalila, is likely to intensify the subvention controversy which has put the political parties and Mr Kabwe in a face-off in the last one week.

Zitto has accused nine political parties with representation in the Parliament of failing to submit their financial accounts to the CAG for auditing. He directed the registrar of political parties to suspend the subsidies of the parties for their failure to comply with the guiding law.

Zitto claimed that the parties had failed to submit audit reports accounting for a total of Sh67.7 billion in the past four years — a requirement made by the Political Parties (Amendment) Act, 2009.

The deputy CAG told The Citizen that the truth about the controversy will be known on Friday at a joint meeting of all the parties.

He, however, clarified that the CAG’s office had allowed parties to seek the services of external auditors. According to Mr Mwakapalila, the CAG can contract qualified firms to audit the political parties.

“Political parties are expected to maintain proper accounts every year and submit their financial reports, audited by the CAG, to the registrar of political parties,” he detailed.

PAC has summoned the parties on Friday to explain why they failed to submit the said reports. “We will know who was right or wrong, I hope the CAG will also be there. Let’s be patient,” he added.

The nine political parties have been insisting that they have submitted their audited accounts to the CAG and accused Mr Kabwe of overstepping his mandate.

Already, the Civic United Front (CUF) said it would not attend the Friday meeting and accused Mr Kabwe of acting beyond his legal powers.

The party’s deputy secretary general (Mainland), Mr Julius Mtatiro, said his party was not on the list of the parties that have not submitted their audit reports.

The ruling CCM has strongly accused the PAC, saying it was aware of the requirements of the law and that the it had has been submitting its audit reports to the CAG.

Its Publicity and Ideology secretary, Mr Nape Nnauye, said the Tanzania Audit Corporation has audited its accounts from 2003/04 to 2010/2011. “We’re waiting for the 2011/2012 audit report which is still with the external auditors,’’ adding that the report would be forwarded with the CAG once it is ready.

NCCR-Mageuzi chairman James Mbatia refuted reports that the party has not submitted its audit reports for four consecutive years.

“Our accounts were audited and we sent reports to the registrar,’’ he said.

He said, however, that the CAG’s office was cash-strapped and unable to oversee the auditing of political parties.

Chadema Information officer, Mr Tumaini Makene, said his party was playing by the rules as far as financial propriety and transparency were concerned. According to Zitto’s committee, CCM has failed to account for Sh50.97 billion, Chadema (Sh9.2 billion), CUF (Sh6.29 billion), NCCR-Mageuzi (Sh677 million), UDP (Sh33 million), TLP (Sh217million), APPT-Maendeleo (Sh11 million), DP (Sh3.3 million) and Chausta (Sh2.4 million).

Meanwhile, two PAC members yesterday defended Mr Kabwe against attacks by political parties allegedly for personalising the subvention issue, saying the matter was owned by the Committee.

They told The Citizen separately that Zitto had full blessings of members of the PAC before he made the statement to the effect that accounts of nine political parties had not been audited for four years.

“That is the position of our committee and not Zitto’s creations as political parties want the public to believe,” said a member of the committee, Mr Abdul Marombwa.

He said they were wondering why the political parties were personalising the issue while the matter surfaced the committee met registrar of political parties, Mr Francis Mutungi, who revealed the information.

“There is no Zitto’s agenda here, we all sat and agreed on the matter,” he said.

Another PAC member who asked not be named said their team was implementing Political Parties (Amendment) Act, 2009, which requires them to submit the parties accounts to the CAG for auditing and forward the audit reports to the registrar.

“The registrar confirmed to us none of the nine parties fulfilled that legal requirement,” he said.

“That was not Zitto’s statement, it was the outcome of the meeting,” he insisted.

Source: THE CITIZEN http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Cag-yet-to-receive-parties-audit-reports/-/1840392/2041932/-/jwtkmj/-/index.html

PRESS RELEASE: ZITTO ZIARANI ULAYA

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PRESS RELEASE

Zitto aenda Uswiss na Uingereza kuhusu utoroshaji wa fedha

Shirika la Kimataifa la Mtandao wa Ulaya wa Madeni na Maendeleo, European Network on Debt and Development (Eurodad)  watafanya ziara ya kiuchunguzi kuhusu masuala ya uwazi katika kodi katika nchi za Ulaya kuanzia tarehe 20 Oktoba mpaka tarehe 5 Novemba mwaka 2013. Uchunguzi huo utaendeshwa na wataalamu waliobobea wa masuala ya kodi na maendeleo. Mwenyekiti wa Kamati ya Bunge ya Hesabu za Serikali wa Bunge la Tanzania Zitto Zuberi Kabwe ameteuliwa kuongoza Jopo la uchunguzi huo.

Eurodad ni Mtandao wa Mashirika yasiyo ya kiserikali yapatayo 48 kutoka nchi 19 za Ulaya ambayo yanajihusisha na masuala ya kufutia madeni nchi zilizoendelea, misaada yenye maana na kodi za haki. Mashirika haya yamekuwa kwenye kampeni ya kupinga utoroshwaji wa fedha kupitia ukwepaji kodi unaofanywa na mashirika ya kimataifa kwa nchi zinazoendelea. Zitto amekuwa mmoja wa wabunge wanaosimamia hoja ya kutaka Watanzania waliotorosha fedha kwenda nje warejeshe na kufunguliwa mashtaka. Mwaka 2012 aliwasilisha hoja binafsi Bungeni na kupitishwa kuwa Azimio la Bunge ya kutaka uchunguzi kuhusu utoroshwaji wa fedha na kufichwa nje kama Uswiss. Kikosi Kazi cha Serikali kutekeleza Azimio hilo la Bunge kinatarajia kuwasilisha taarifa yake katika Mkutano wa Kumi na Sita wa Bunge. Siku ya Jumatatu tarehe 21 Oktoba Zitto atakutana na Waziri wa Fedha wa Uswiss na maafisa wa mabenki na asasi zisizo za kiserikali zilizopo jijini Geneva. Pia Zitto atahudhuria mkutano wa Kamati ya Kodi ya Umoja wa Mataifa katika kampeni ya kubadili mfumo wa kodi za kimataifa ili kuzuia unyonyaji wa nchi za Kiafrika unaofanywa na Makampuni makubwa ya Kimataifa.

Baada ya Geneva Zitto atatembelea nchi za Luxembourg na Brussels kabla ya kwenda Norway ambapo atamalizia ziara yake kwa Jopo la Wataalamu wa masuala ya kodi na Maendeleo kuandika taarifa maalumu yenye mapendekezo kuhusu kuzuia utoroshaji wa fedha kutoka Afrika.

Zitto atakwenda jijini London kutoa mada kuhusu masuala ya kodi za kimataifa katika mkutano wa Uwazi (Open Government Partnership). Mwenyekiti wa PAC Tanzania atafanya mazungumzo na Mwenyekiti wa PAC Uingereza Bi Margaret Eve Hodge, Lady Hodge MBE, PC, MP  kuhusu masuala mbalimbali ya ushirikiano wa mabunge mawili na kuendeleza wito wake kwa makampuni ya kimataifa kulipa kodi zao barani Afrika na kuacha tabia ya kutumia ‘Tax Havens’ kukwepa kodi na kufukarisha nchi za Kiafrika.

Zitto invited to annual OGP Summit

The Kigoma North Member of Parliament and Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC), Hon Zitto Kabwe has been invited for the annual Open Government Partnership (OGP) Forum which kicks off in London at the end of the month.

The OGP Summit is a chance to promote tax and illicit issues to new audiences, to encourage new commitments in country action plans.

Hon Zitto, who also serves as Deputy Leader of Official Opposition in the Parliament, will serve in the panel which will discuss tax and illicit flows, which is among themes to be deliberated during the summit.

The OGP is a global platform for domestic reformers committed to making their governments more open, accountable, and responsive to citizens. Tanzania is among countries which have signed its membership to the OGP.

Hon Zitto has great interest on tax avoidance through illicit transfers and last year he tabled private motions which lead to the adoption of a Parliament Resolution compelling the government to investigate a number of individuals who have illicitly stashed billions of dollars abroad.

The fact finding mission will see its members interact with UN Tax Committee, OECD, EU as well as key European governments. They will visit a number of European cities namely Geneva, Paris, Luxembourg, Brussels and Oslo.

Ends

Issued by;

Parliamentary Office of Hon. Zitto Kabwe MP

Dar es Salaam

October 19, 2013

 

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